Not every person’s experience will fit neatly into these following categories, but this list should provide some idea of the range of cults and their reach into every walk of life. Read our full mailing list consent terms here. Nairaland Forum / Nairaland / General / Religion / How Religion Works; The Psychology Behind It. We do not guarantee individual replies due to extremely high volume of correspondence. This ability – known as cognitive decoupling – originates in childhood through pretend play. Catholic imagery on a tomb in Waihola village (near Nihiwatu) shows how imported religions seem often to have blended almost seamlessly with the ancient Marapu religion. This site uses cookies to assist with navigation, analyse your use of our services, and provide content from third parties. Have you ever seen the outline of a person only to realise that it is actually a coat hung on the door? "I'm not trying to answer theological questions about the existence or nature of God," Reiss said. Our relationships depend on being able to predict how others will behave across situations and time. One of the basic desires - independence - may separate religious and non-religious people. The information you enter will appear in your e-mail message and is not retained by Phys.org in any form. While all people need to fulfill the same basic desires, not everyone will turn to religion to satisfy them, Reiss said. "Religion competes with secular society to meet those 16 needs and can gain or lose popularity based on how well people believe it does compared to secular society," Reiss said. Nick Perham is a senior lecturer in psychology at Cardiff Metropolitan University. Although there is a psychological framework behind why racism occurs, it is still something that cannot be tolerated, especially with the Ku Klux Klan in … Those with low self-esteem are more likely to be persuaded by a cult environment. "Religion has to appeal to both introverts and extroverts," Reiss said. Ohio State University Psychologists try to explain the factors that could lead to terrorism like the 9/11 attack on the World Trade Center by Islamic extremist group al-Qaeda. The psychology that prevailed in my college years was predominately Freudian psychoanalysis, but my clinical beginning point in the late 1950's had turned to Rogerian client-centered therapy. In the end, the researchers identified 16 basic desires that we all share: acceptance, curiosity, eating, family, honor, idealism, independence, order, physical activity, power, romance, saving, social contact, status, tranquility and vengeance. This is part of an "Amazing Arguments" playlist featuring people like Daniel Dennet, Stephen Pinker, Sam Harris, and Christopher Hitchens. The growth of psychology as a science was stimulated further by the launching of Sputnik in 1957 and the opening of the Russian-American space race to the Moon. The journal publishes articles employing experimental and correlational methods, qualitative analyses, and critical reviews of the literature. Are we talking about Religion in general or specific religions? For extroverts, religion offers festivals and teaches that God blesses fellowship. Vande Kemp (1992) notes that most psychologists of religion would agree that either William James or G. Stanley Hall must be acknowledged as the founder of the movement. Are you sure you want to mark this comment as inappropriate? In a study published in 2000, Reiss found that religious people (the study included mostly Christians) expressed a strong desire for interdependence with others. / A Heart-rending Narrative On How Religion Destroyed 'an Ideal Family' / How Wisdom Brings Greatness Vs How Religion Brings Foolishness (2) (3) (4) Religion could be a by-product of a number of cognitive and social adaptations which have been extremely important in human development All religious beliefs and practices are designed to meet one or more of these 16 desires, Reiss explained. It is a small leap from being able to imagine the mind of someone we know to imagining an omnipotent, omniscient, human-like mind – especially if we have religious texts which tell of their past actions. The first cluster proceeds by means of objective, quantitative, and preferably experimental procedures for testing hypotheses regardi… We continue to rely on these attachments in later life, when falling in love and making friends, and can even form strong attachments to non-human animals and inanimate objects. Independent Premium Comments can be posted by members of our membership scheme, Independent Premium. He explains “liberal” and “conservative” not narrowly or necessarily as political affiliations, but as personality types — ways of moving through the world. "It's not just about fear of death. In doing so we inevitably have stronger attachments to some individuals more than others. Click here to sign in with "How much an individual values each of those 16 desires corresponds closely to what he or she likes and dislikes about religion.". Azim Shariff. The most insightful comments on all subjects will be published daily in dedicated articles. The content is provided for information purposes only. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality ® publishes peer-reviewed, original articles related to the psychological aspects of religion and spirituality.. While still considered sacred the tombs very quickly become part of normal village life. Please be respectful when making a comment and adhere to our Community Guidelines. For example, there is the desire for social contact. To the point being obsessed, and thinking about it all day. The psychology that prevailed in my Yale years was predominantly the empirical social psychologists like … alongside their master. An employment tribunal is having to decide. Tombs in the centre of Tarung village serve as handy domestic surfaces. Essay Details: Subject: Humanities. Psychology Definition of RELIGION: Social articulation of beliefs in higher powers, most often exercised within the public arena. Ideology is the term widely used to describe the underlying set of values, myths, ideas, attitudes, beliefs and doctrine that shape the behavioral approach to political, economic, social, cultural and/or ecological activities of an […] A key point is that each of the 16 desires motivates personality opposites and those opposites all have to find a home in a successful religion, Reiss said. Length: 6 / 1589. Promises of an afterlife are designed to help people achieve tranquility. These cognitive adaptations are facilitated by educational and household norms which don’t tend to dispute religious ideas. Why people are religious, according to a psychology expert. Is the concept of "wave function collapse" obsolete? After World War II, American psychology, particularly clinical psychology, grew into a substantial field in its own right, partly in response to the needs of returning veterans. Psychology behind morality obsession? I doubt any book about psychology of the religious mind is going to be very reliable (or it might just be gigantic) but just about every critical/ academic text dealing with religion fits under the top of "psychology behind religion." Throughout history, scholars and researchers have tried to identify the one key reason that people are attracted to religion. Physics Forums | Science Articles, Homework Help, Discussion, Science X Daily and the Weekly Email Newsletter are free features that allow you to receive your favorite sci-tech news updates in your email inbox. Standard Edition … Medical research advances and health news, The latest engineering, electronics and technology advances, The most comprehensive sci-tech news coverage on the web. Einstein's 'God letter' rejecting religion auctioned for $3m, Trump wishes happy Diwali to various religions, but forgets Hindus, You may not agree with our views, or other users’, but please respond to them respectfully, Swearing, personal abuse, racism, sexism, homophobia and other discriminatory or inciteful language is not acceptable, Do not impersonate other users or reveal private information about third parties, We reserve the right to delete inappropriate posts and ban offending users without notification. ", More from Physics Forums | Science Articles, Homework Help, Discussion. Re: How Religion Works; The Psychology Behind It. You can be assured our editors closely monitor every feedback sent and will take appropriate actions. ‘Psychology and Religion is an authoritative survey of what we know about the psychology of religion. Part of an "Amazing Arguments" playlist featuring people like Michael Shermer, Sam Harris, and Christopher Hitchens. Religious beliefs reflect our unique cognitive ability to detect agency and intention in others and, by extension, in the natural world. Religion even finds ways to deal with the desire for vengeance, Reiss said. Your email address is used only to let the recipient know who sent the email. The title of this paper, "The Psychology of Atheism," may seem strange. / A Heart-rending Narrative On How Religion Destroyed 'an Ideal Family' / How Wisdom Brings Greatness Vs How Religion Brings Foolishness (2) (3) (4) "We all share the same 16 goals, but what makes us different is how much we value each one," Reiss said. But in a new book, a psychologist who has studied human motivation for more than 20 years suggests that all these theories are too narrow. Thank you for taking your time to send in your valued opinion to Science X editors. by hopefulLandlord: 12:25pm On Aug 03, 2017 D1official : I guess nairaland is the most common ground for atheists sermons. Title: Psychology Of Religion. While we are encouraged to challenge other ideas presented to us early in childhood that may not have a strong evidence base – such as Father Christmas or the Tooth Fairy – this is not the case with religion. For instance, people who believe that the end of the world is imminent might be more likely to withdraw from society. A royal tomb in Pasunga village is flanked by the smaller tombs where servants were buried (sometimes buried alive!) The surprising psychology behind morality is at the heart of social psychologist Jonathan Haidt’s research. Many different psychological accounts have been put forth over the years, emphasising different determinants, and taking different stances on whether faith is a good thing or not. The development context of these countries put their people in a unique position, experiencing more phenomena at once. The ritual behaviour seen in collective worship makes us enjoy and want to repeat the experience. Want to bookmark your favourite articles and stories to read or reference later? Another key adaptation that may help religious belief derives from our ability to anthropomorphise objects. Can reason and religion ever really co-exist? (2906 Views) How Religion Draws People Back. Please continue to respect all commenters and create constructive debates. Grade: A. Religion could be a by-product of a number of cognitive and social adaptations which have been extremely important in human development. Two of the drivers of world affairs that manifest in the daily decisions that affect our lives are ideology and religion. After all, psychology, since its founding roughly a century ago, has often focused on the opposite topic-namely the psychology of … The psychology of religion as a movement within psychology began almost as soon as psychology expanded from German universities to American universities. Cults come in a variety of shapes and sizes. COLUMBUS, Ohio – Throughout history, scholars and researchers have tried to identify the one key reason that people are attracted to religion. Karl Marx, for example, called religion the “opium of the people”. For example, religious rituals fulfill the desire for order. I would like to know your input on why certain people are obsessed with morality. Get weekly and/or daily updates delivered to your inbox. Test a cheap Surge Protector Power Strip (US 110V)? Two of the drivers of world affairs that manifest in the daily decisions that affect our lives are ideology and religion. The psychology of religion as a movement within psychology began almost as soon as psychology expanded from German universities to American universities. While the theory can tell us a lot about the types of people who are attracted to religion and different religious experiences, it cannot say anything about the truth of religious beliefs, Reiss said. spaceman . These challenges are often discouraged in religious teachings and sometimes regarded as sinful. What do they mean when they say something is so many light years away. For introverts, religion encourages meditation and private retreats and teaches that God blesses solitude. Of course, one might argue that god creates everything outlined above but then this leads us onto another, bigger question: what is the evidence for god? Support free-thinking journalism and attend Independent events, {{#verifyErrors}} {{message}} {{/verifyErrors}} {{^verifyErrors}} {{message}} {{/verifyErrors}}, Why people are religious, according to a psychology expert, Is Veganism a religion? Reiss said one advantage of his theory is that, unlike many other theories of religion, it can be scientifically tested. The quick and easy answer to why people are religious is that god – in whichever form you believe he/she/they take(s) – is real and people believe because they communicate with it and perceive evidence of its involvement in the world. Reiss then developed a questionnaire, called the Reiss Motivation Profile, that measures how much people value each of these 16 goals. British psychologist John Bowlby demonstrated this influence of attachments on children’s emotional and social development, and showed how these can suffer when they are threatened through separation or abuse. Reiss's theory of what attracts people to religion is based on his research in the 1990s on motivation. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Privacy Policy The extraordinary range of methods and frameworks can be helpfully summed up regarding the classic distinction between the natural-scientificand human-scientific approaches. But in a new book, a psychologist who has studied human motivation for more than 20 years suggests that all these … Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no You can find our Community Guidelines in full here. and Terms of Use. They increase levels of serotonin, dopamine, and oxytocin in the brain – chemicals that make us feel good, want to do things again and provide a closeness to others. Religion couldn't achieve mass acceptance if it only fulfilled one or two basic desires," said Steven Reiss, a professor emeritus of psychology at The Ohio State University and author of The 16 Strivings for God (Mercer University Press, 2016). Religion could be a by-product of a number of cognitive and social adaptations which have been extremely important in human development, Find your bookmarks in your Independent Premium section, under my profile. More than 100,000 people have now completed the questionnaire. COLUMBUS, Ohio - Throughout history, scholars and researchers have tried to identify the one key reason that people are attracted to religion. A more recent psychological explanation is the idea that our evolution has created a “god-shaped hole” or has given us a metaphorical “god engine” which can drive us to believe in a deity. "In 16 Strivings for God, I discuss a mystical personality type - the kind of person who would likely find value and meaning in mystical experiences and would be attracted to religion for that reason," he said. Researchers who study the psychology and neuroscience of religion are helping to explain why such beliefs are so enduring. It allows our most engaged readers to debate the big issues, share their own experiences, discuss real-world solutions, and more. The psychological approach to the understanding of faith offers accounts of faith in terms of underlying psychological determinants (needs, wishes, tendencies, etc.). ‘Psychology and Religion is an authoritative survey of what we know about the psychology of religion. We are social creatures who interact and communicate with each other in a cooperative and supportive way. It is very clear and readable, and reflects Michael Argyle’s considerable reputation and experience.’ Fraser Watts, University of Cambridge But the things that we form attachments to don’t necessarily need to be in front of us to predict their actions. Workplace relationships are influenced by many factors, among which religion is one of the less studied ones, especially in former communist countries. Certainly, my psychological colleagues have found it odd and even, I might add, a little disturbing. After noting that roughly 10 – 20 percent of the standing-room-only crowd had raised their hands, he commented, “That’s about right in terms of degree of religious … Regardless of your point of view, the impact of religion and religious thinking on human functioning and evolution is a captivating intellectual debate that shows no sign of ending. Tombs in the centre of Tarung village serve as handy laundry driers on a sunny Sumba morning. Topics: Politics / Society / Religion: Psychology behind morality obsession? Level: University. Secular society offers alternatives to fulfill all of the basic desires. Likely, part of an `` Amazing Arguments '' playlist featuring people like Michael Shermer, Sam Harris and. Are you sure you want to bookmark your favourite articles and stories to read or reference?!: Marilyn P. Date: August 5, 2014 of 149 the Varieties of religious (... 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